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Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies.

Author(s) : Willett WC., Sun Q., Hu FB., Muraki I., Imamura F., Manson JE., Van Dam RM.
Date : Dec, 2013
Source(s) : Bmj (clinical Research Ed.) #347 pf5001
Adresse : Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

OBJECTIVE
To determine whether individual fruits are differentially associated with risk of type 2 diabetes.

DESIGNS
Prospective longitudinal cohort study.

SETTING
Health professionals in the United States.

PARTICIPANTS
66,105 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2008), 85,104 women from the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2009), and 36,173 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008) who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline in these studies.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE
Incident cases of type 2 diabetes, identified through self report and confirmed by supplementary questionnaires.

RESULTS
During 3,464,641 person years of follow-up, 12,198 participants developed type 2 diabetes. After adjustment for personal, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors of diabetes, the pooled hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes for every three servings/week of total whole fruit consumption was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 0.99). With mutual adjustment of individual fruits, the pooled hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes for every three servings/week were 0.74 (0.66 to 0.83) for blueberries, 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93) for grapes and raisins, 0.89 (0.79 to 1.01) for prunes, 0.93 (0.90 to 0.96) for apples and pears, 0.95 (0.91 to 0.98) for bananas, 0.95 (0.91 to 0.99) for grapefruit, 0.97 (0.92 to 1.02) for peaches, plums, and apricots, 0.99 (0.95 to 1.03) for oranges, 1.03 (0.96 to 1.10) for strawberries, and 1.10 (1.02 to 1.18) for cantaloupe. The pooled hazard ratio for the same increment in fruit juice consumption was 1.08 (1.05 to 1.11). The associations with risk of type 2 diabetes differed significantly among individual fruits (P<0.001 in all cohorts).

CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest the presence of heterogeneity in the associations between individual fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. Greater consumption of specific whole fruits, particularly blueberries, grapes, and apples, is significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas greater consumption of fruit juice is associated with a higher risk.

Source : Pubmed

 

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