Amande

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Caloric intake
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Produit sec
seasonality of the product
summer, autumn
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Description

  • The almond tree (Prunus dulcis, Prunus amygdalus var. dulcis, Amygdalus communis) belongs to the Rosaceae family.
  • The United States harvests more than half of the world’s almond production (FAO, 2018).
  • The harvest of fresh (green) almonds takes place in September and October. Dry almonds are available all year round (Les fruits et légumes frais).

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

  • The bitterness of almonds depends on their amygdalin content. Amygdalin content varies from 2.16 to 157.44 mg/kg in sweet almonds and from 33 006.60 to 53 998.30 mg/kg in bitter almonds (Lee, 2013).
  • When chewed, amygdalin breaks down into hydrogencyanide and benzaldehyde. While the latter is responsible for the “pure almond” aroma in synthetic oils and essences, hydrogencyanide, which is very present in bitter almonds, can be toxic to humans (King, 2019).
  • The region in which the almond tree is grown may have an influence on the amygdalin concentration (Lee, 2013).

COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals)

  • The fibres contained in the almond skin, in its natural state or after being bleached, seem to have properties identical to fructo-oligosaccharides, namely a prebiotic effect on the bacterial strains found in the gut flora (Mandalari, 2010). The cell walls of the almond contain pectic substances, rich in arabinose, which may be at the origin of this prebiotic effect (Mandalari, 2008).
  • Almonds are an important source of polyphenols.
    • Nine phenolic acids and nineteen flavonoids have been found in the whole almond. The main polyphenol is catechin, followed by chlorogenic acid and naringenin (Čolić, 2017).
    • The skin of the almond also contains a significant amount of flavonoids, mainly flavan-3-ols and flavonols (Llorach, 2010).
  • Consumption of 30 g of almonds per day appears to be associated with health benefits. It is reported to help prevent metabolic diseases (control of blood sugar in diabetics, hyperuricemia and hyperlipidemia), reduce risk factors for coronary heart disease and improve the profile of the gut microbiota (Diella, 2018).
  • Furthermore, a study has shown that natural (NS) and bleached (BS) almond skin extracts may have an inhibitory effect on herpes simplex virus1 (HSV-1) replication. Quercetin, epicatechin and catechin (polyphenols of the flavonoid family) are reportedly able to block the production of HSV-1 infectious particles. This capacity appears to be greater in NS extracts than in BS extracts (Bisignano, 2017).
  • Rich in unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid, almond oil may be a potential therapeutic agent for colon cancer due to its anticancer and anti-proliferative effects (Mericli, 2017). However, the lipid profile of the almond is influenced by the region in which the almond tree is grown and is also variable depending on the cultivar (Sathe, 2008).
  • Almond cultivars also differ in their volatile profiles, in their non-volatile metabolites (pyranosides, peptides, amino acids, etc.) and in their profiles of tocopherols, derivatives of vitamin E (King, 2019).
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual 2020. Consultée le 23/07/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual pour le calcul des apports nutritionnels CALNUT 2020. Consultée le 14/09/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Barreira JC, Pereira JA, Oliveira MB, Ferreira JC. Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2010;65(1):38-43.
  • Bisignano C, Mandalari G, Smeriglio A, Trombetta D, Pizzo MM, Pennisi R, et al. Almond Skin Extracts Abrogate HSV-1 Replication by Blocking Virus Binding to the Cell. Viruses. 2017;9(7):178.
  • Čolić SD, Fotirić Akšić MM, Lazarević KB, Zec GN, Gašić UM, Dabić Zagorac DČ, et al. Fatty acid and phenolic profiles of almond grown in Serbia. Food Chemistry. 2017;234:455-63.
  • Diella G, Di Ciaula A, Lorusso MP, Summo C, Caggiano G, Caponio F, et al. Distinct Effects of two Almond Cultivars on Agreeability and Gastrointestinal Motility in Healthy Subjects: more than mere Nutraceuticals. Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases: JGLD. 2018;27(1):31-9.
  • FAOSTAT. FAO Statistics Agriculture Database. World Wide Web. 2018 [en ligne]. [Consulté le 12 mars 2020] Disponible à l’adresse : http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC.
  • King ES, Chapman DM, Luo K, Ferris S, Huang G, Mitchell AE. Defining the Sensory Profiles of Raw Almond (Prunus dulcis) Varieties and the Contribution of Key Chemical Compounds and Physical Properties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2019;67(11):3229-41.
  • Lee J, Zhang G, Wood E, Rogel Castillo C, Mitchell AE. Quantification of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61(32):7754-9.
  • Les fruits et légumes frais. Amande. [en ligne]. [Consulté le 07/05/2020]. Disponible à l’adresse : www.lesfruitsetlegumesfrais.com
  • Llorach R, Garrido I, Monagas M, Urpi-Sarda M, Tulipani S, Bartolome B, Andres-Lacueva C. Metabolomics study of human urinary metabolome modifications after intake of almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skin polyphenols. J Proteome Res. 2010 ;9(11):5859-67.
  • Mandalari G, Nueno-Palop C, Bisignano G, Wickham MS, Narbad A. Potential prebiotic properties of almond (Amygdalus communis L.). Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 ;74(14):4264-70.
  • Mandalari G, Faulks RM, Bisignano C, Waldron KW, Narbad A, Wickham MS. In vitro evaluation of the prebiotic properties of almond skins (Amygdalus communis L.). FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;304(2):116-22.
  • Mericli F, Becer E, Kabadayı H, Hanoglu A, Yigit Hanoglu D, Ozkum Yavuz D, Ozek T, Vatansever S. Fatty acid composition and anticancer activity in colon carcinoma cell lines of Prunus dulcis seed oil. Pharm Biol. 2017;55(1):1239-48
  • Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024. Full text (free access)
  • Règlement (CE) N° 1924/2006 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 2006 concernant les allégations nutritionnelles et de santé portant sur les denrées alimentaires.
  • Règlement (UE) N°432/2012 de la Commission du 16 mai 2012 établissant une liste des allégations de santé autorisées portant sur les denrées alimentaires, autres que celles faisant référence à la réduction du risque de maladie ainsi qu’au développement et à la santé infantiles.
  • Règlement (UE) n°1169/2011 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 octobre 2011 concernant l’information des consommateurs sur les denrées alimentaires, modifiant les règlements (CE) n°1924/2006 et (CE) n°1925/2006 du Parlement européen et de Conseil et abrogeant la directive 87/250/CEE de la Commission, la directive 90/496/CEE du Conseil, la directive 1999/10/CE de la Commission, la directive 200/13/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, les directives 2002/67/CE et 2008/5/CE de la Commission et le règlement (CE) n°608/2004 de la Commission.
  • Sathe SK, Seeram NP, Kshirsagar HH, Heber D, Lapsley KA. Fatty acid composition of California grown almonds. J Food Sci. 2008;73(9):C607-14.
Composition and analysis