Courgette

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Caloric intake
-
mg Potassium
Cooked product (roasted/baked)
seasonality of the product
spring, summer
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Description

  • Courgette (Cucurbita pepo subsp. ovifera) belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family (Xanthopoulou, 2019).
  • Native to Mexico, the pepo subspecies includes squashes, pumpkin and cocozelle (Xanthopoulou, 2019).
  • Also called “summer squash”, the courgette has the particularity of being harvested very young. In France, there are several varieties such as the Ronde de Nice, the Grisette de Provence, the Blanche de Virginie and the Goldrush (Les fruits et légumes frais)

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

  • Courgettes are consumed while not yet ripe (Xanthopoulou, 2019).
  • Ripe courgette can be up to 1 m long and the larger ones are often fibrous (Sood, 2017). They can be found in different colours: dark green, slightly lighter and very light, as well as yellow-orange (Sood, 2017).
  • Yellow courgette contains xanthophyll pigments responsible for its colour (Yasuoka, 2018).
  • A study has shown a greater presence of carotenoids in the skin than in the flesh of fruits belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family, including courgette, which explains the more intense colour of the skin and the much lighter colour of the flesh (Obrero, 2013)

COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals)

  • Courgette contains significant amounts of natural antioxidants such as β-carotene, folic acid and vitamin C (Sood, 2017).
  • High levels of carotenes and vitamin C give courgette stimulating properties (Iosypenko, 2019).
  • Its seeds are also reported to contain traces of anticancer substances, called protease trypsin inhibitors, which inhibit the activation of viruses and carcinogens in the human digestive tract (Sood, 2017).

Epicarps of courgette have higher carotenoid levels than the rest of the fruit. The darker the colour of the courgette, the higher the carotenoid level (Iosypenko, 2019).

RAW

The following values are approximate and depend on variety, season, ripeness, cultivation conditions, etc. Raw courgette is low in energy* because it provides on average 16.50 calories (kcal) for 100 g, i.e. 69.40 kJ. One courgette weighs on average 250 g, which represents an energy intake of approximately 41.25 kcal.

COMPOSITION TABLES

For each nutrient, the tables provide information on the content, the minimum and maximum values, as well as the percentage of the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for 100 g net of raw courgette (pulp and skin).

*Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.

MACRONUTRIENTS

Constituant (g) Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Water - - -
Fibers - - -
Carbohydrates - - -
Lipids - - -
Protein - - -
Constituant (g) Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Water - - -
Fibers - - -
Carbohydrates - - -
Lipids - - -
Protein - - -

Zoom on carbohydrates
  • The carbohydrate content of raw courgette (1.80 g per 100 g) is lower than the average for raw vegetables (4.45 g per 100 g).
  • Raw courgette is low in sugar* (1.79 g per 100 g) as it contains no more than 5 g per 100 g.
Zoom on fibres
  • The amount of fibre in raw courgette (1.05 g per 100 g) is lower than the average quantity in raw vegetables (2.43 g per 100 g).
Zoom on proteins
  • The protein content of raw courgette (1.23 g per 100 g) is lower than the average amount found in raw vegetables (1.87 g per 100 g).
Zoom on lipids
  • The fat content of raw courgette (0.26 g per 100 g) is lower than the average amount found in raw vegetables (0.56 g per 100 g)
  • Raw courgette is fat-free* as it contains less than 0.5 g per 100 g.

 

*Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.

MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS

Constituant Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Calcium (mg) - - -
Copper (mg) - - -
Iron (mg) - - -
Iode (µg) - - -
Magnésium (mg) - - -
Manganese (mg) - - -
Phosphorus (mg) - - -
Potassium (mg) - - -
Sodium (mg) - - -
Zinc (mg) - - -
Constituant Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Calcium (mg) - - -
Copper (mg) - - -
Iron (mg) - - -
Iode (µg) - - -
Magnésium (mg) - - -
Manganese (mg) - - -
Phosphorus (mg) - - -
Potassium (mg) - - -
Sodium (mg) - - -
Zinc (mg) - - -

Zoom on minerals and trace elements
  • Raw courgette contains significant amounts of potassium and manganese. It provides the equivalent of:
    • 13.10% of DRVs for potassium, i.e. 262 mg per 100 g;
    • 9% of DRVs for manganese, i.e. 0.18 mg per 100 g.
  • The other minerals and trace elements are present in quantities representing less than 7% of DRVs.

MICRONUTRIENTS

Constituant Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B2 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B5 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B6 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B9 (µg) - - -
Vitamin C (mg) - - -
Vitamin E (mg) - - -
Constituant Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B2 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B5 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B6 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B9 (µg) - - -
Vitamin C (mg) - - -
Vitamin E (mg) - - -

Zoom on vitamins
  • Raw courgette is a source of:
    • vitamin C as it provides the equivalent of 21.88 % of DRVs, i.e. 17.50 mg per 100 g;
    • vitamin B9 as it provides the equivalent of 18% of DRVs, i.e. 36 µg per 100 g.
  • Raw courgette also contains a significant amount of vitamin B6, as it provides the equivalent of 13.57% of DRVs, i.e. 0.19 mg per 100 g.
  • The other vitamins represent less than 9% of DRVs.

 

*Calculation performed: Beta Carotene / 6 + retinol

ROASTED/BAKED

The following values are approximate and depend on variety, season, ripeness, cultivation conditions, etc. Roasted/baked courgette is low in energy* as it provides an average of 23 calories (kcal) per 100 g, i.e. 96.60 kJ. One courgette weighs on average 250 g, which represents an energy intake of approximately 57.50 kcal.

COMPOSITION TABLES

For each nutrient, the tables provide information on the content, minimum and maximum values, as well as the percentage of the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for 100 g net of roasted/baked (pulp and skin) courgette (except for the table on polyphenols, which refers to boiled courgette).

*Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.

MACRONUTRIENTS

Constituant (g) Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Water - - -
Fibers - - -
Carbohydrates - - -
Lipids - - -
Protein - - -
Constituant (g) Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Water - - -
Fibers - - -
Carbohydrates - - -
Lipids - - -
Protein - - -

Zoom on carbohydrates
  • The amount of carbohydrates in baked courgette (3.13 g per 100 g) is lower than the average quantity found in cooked vegetables (4.85 g per 100 g).
  • These are mainly fructose (1.50 g per 100 g) and glucose (1.20 g per 100 g).
  • Cooked courgette is low in sugar* (2.70 g per 100 g) as it contains less than 5 g per 100 g.
Zoom on fibres
  • Its fibre content (1.70 g per 100 g) is lower than the average amount found in cooked vegetables (2.89 g per 100 g).
Zoom on protein
  • The amount of proteins (1.50 g per 100 g) in baked courgette is lower than the average amount found in cooked vegetables (2 g per 100 g).
Zoom on lipids
  • Cooked courgette is fat-free* as it contains less than 0.5 g per 100 g.

 

*Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.

MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS

Constituant Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Calcium (mg) - - -
Copper (mg) - - -
Iron (mg) - - -
Iode (µg) - - -
Magnésium (mg) - - -
Manganese (mg) - - -
Phosphorus (mg) - - -
Potassium (mg) - - -
Sodium (mg) - - -
Zinc (mg) - - -
Constituant Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Calcium (mg) - - -
Copper (mg) - - -
Iron (mg) - - -
Iode (µg) - - -
Magnésium (mg) - - -
Manganese (mg) - - -
Phosphorus (mg) - - -
Potassium (mg) - - -
Sodium (mg) - - -
Zinc (mg) - - -

Zoom on minerals and trace elements
  • Cooked courgette is a source of potassium as it provides the equivalent of 15% of DRVs, i.e. 300 mg per 100 g.
  • The other minerals and trace elements are present in quantities representing less than 8% of DRVs.

MICRONUTRIENTS

Constituant Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B2 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B5 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B6 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B9 (µg) - - -
Vitamin C (mg) - - -
Vitamin E (mg) - - -
Constituant Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B2 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B5 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B6 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B9 (µg) - - -
Vitamin C (mg) - - -
Vitamin E (mg) - - -

Zoom on vitamins
  • Baked courgette provides the equivalent of:
    • 8.65% of DRVs for vitamin A (i.e. 69.17 µg per 100 g), carotenoids family,
    • and 8.20% of DRVs for vitamin B9 (i.e. 16.40 µg per 100 g).
  • The quantity of other vitamins represents less than 5% of DRVs.

*Calculation performed: Beta Carotene / 6 + retinol

Nutrition and health claims

According to the definitions of nutrition claims as set out in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims, and in view of the composition of raw courgette, the following claims may be used:

NUTRITION CLAIMS OF RAW COURGETTE

  • Low in energy (100 g of raw courgette provide less than 40 kcal)
  • Fat-free (100 g of raw courgette contain less than 0.5 g of fat)
  • Low in sugar (100 g of raw courgette contain no more than 5 g of sugars)
  • Source of vitamin C (100 g of raw courgette provide the equivalent of more than 15% of DRVs)
  • Source of vitamin B9 (100 g of raw courgette provide the equivalent of more than 15% of DRVs)

HEALTH CLAIMS (for a consumption of 100 g of raw courgette)

Vitamin C
  • Vitamin C contributes to:
    • normal function of the immune system during and after intense physical exercise,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of blood vessels,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of bones,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of cartilage,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of gums,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of skin,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of teeth,
    • normal energy-yielding metabolism,
    • normal functioning of the nervous system,
    • normal psychological function,
    • normal function of the immune system,
    • protection of cells from oxidative stress,
    • reduction of tiredness and fatigue,
    • regeneration of the reduced form of vitamin E.
  • Vitamin C increases iron absorption.
Folates or vitamin B9

Folates contribute to:

  • maternal tissue growth during pregnancy,
  • normal amino acid synthesis,
  • normal blood formation,
  • normal homocysteine metabolism,
  • normal psychological function,
  • normal function of the immune system,
  • reduction of tiredness and fatigue,
  • Folates have a role in the process of cell division.

Nutrition and health claims

According to the definitions of nutrition claims as set out in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims, and in view of the composition of roasted/baked courgettes, the following claims may be used:

NUTRITION CLAIMS OF COOKED COURGETTES

  • Low in energy (100 g of roasted/baked courgette provide less than 40 kcal)
  • Fat-free (100 g of roasted/baked courgette contain no more than 0.5 g of fat)
  • Low in sugar (100 g of roasted/baked courgette contain no more than 5 g of sugar)
  • Source of potassium (100 g of roasted/baked courgette provide more than 15% of DRVs)

HEALTH CLAIMS (for a consumption of 100 g of cooked courgette)

Potassium
  • Potassium contributes to:
    • normal functioning of the nervous system,
    • normal muscle function,
    • maintenance of normal blood pressure.
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual 2020. Consultée le 20/08/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Iosypenko OO, Kyslychenko VS, Omelchenko ZI, Burlaka IS. Fatty acid composition of vegetable marrows and zucchini leaves. Pharmacia. 2019;66(4):201-7.
  • Les fruits et légumes frais. Courgette. [en ligne]. [Consulté le 05/05/2020] disponible à l’adresse : www.lesfruitsetlegumesfrais.com
  • Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024. Full text (free access)
  • Obrero Á, González-Verdejo CI, Die JV, Gómez P, Del Río-Celestino M, Román B. Carotenogenic gene expression and carotenoid accumulation in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo during fruit development. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61(26):6393-403.
  • Règlement (CE) N° 1924/2006 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 2006 concernant les allégations nutritionnelles et de santé portant sur les denrées alimentaires.
  • Règlement (UE) N°432/2012 de la Commission du 16 mai 2012 établissant une liste des allégations de santé autorisées portant sur les denrées alimentaires, autres que celles faisant référence à la réduction du risque de maladie ainsi qu’au développement et à la santé infantiles.
  • Règlement (UE) n°1169/2011 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 octobre 2011 concernant l’information des consommateurs sur les denrées alimentaires, modifiant les règlements (CE) n°1924/2006 et (CE) n°1925/2006 du Parlement européen et de Conseil et abrogeant la directive 87/250/CEE de la Commission, la directive 90/496/CEE du Conseil, la directive 1999/10/CE de la Commission, la directive 200/13/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, les directives 2002/67/CE et 2008/5/CE de la Commission et le règlement (CE) n°608/2004 de la Commission.
  • Sood R, Gupta S, Rana MK (2017). Vegetable Crop Science. Boca Raton : Rana MK, 472 p.
  • Yasuoka R. Analysis of Colors in Nature. ELCAS Journal. 2018;3:111-3.
  • Xanthopoulou A, Montero-Pau J, Mellidou I. Whole-genome resequencing of Cucurbita pepo morphotypes to discover genomic variants associated with morphology and horticulturally valuable traits. Hortic Res. 2019;6(94):256-61.
Composition and analysis