Endive

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Caloric intake
-
mg Potassium
mg Polyphénols totaux
Raw product
seasonality of the product
spring, autumn, winter
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Description

  • Endives (Cichorium endivia L. or Cichorium intybus L.) belong to the Asteraceae family (Bernades, 2013)
  • This family is morphologically characterized by the presence of latex and perfect flowers in the flower head (Bernades, 2013).
  • Among the main elements of this family are lettuce, chicory and endive, which are consumed worldwide as salad vegetables (Bernades, 2013).
  • Endives are one of the most difficult vegetables to grow, requiring a two-stage growth process before being ready for harvest (Rana, 2017).

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

  • The anthocyanins present in red endive give it its purple and/or red (Ramya, 2019) appearance.
  • Curly endive (Cichorium endivia L. var. Crispum) and escarole (Cichorium endivia L. var. Latifolium) have been studied for their sensory characters. Curly endive is perceived to be more astringent, more herbaceous, and notably more bitter than escarole (D’Antuono, 2016).
  • These sensory traits are reportedly systematically linked to the presence of lactones and phenolic compounds such as lactucopicrin and kaempferol malonyl glucoside (D’Antuono, 2016).

COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals)

  • Composition in polyphenols of endive:
    • Endive leaf contains mostly hydroxycinnamic acids, especially chlorogenic acid and chicoric acid (Sinkoviç, 2015).
    • In addition, it contains flavonols, a subgroup of flavonoids, the majority of which are kaempferols. Three conjugated kaempferols have been identified: kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucuronide and kaempferol 3-O-[6+O+malonyl] glucoside (Du Pont, 2000;  Carazzone, 2013Khalil, 2015).
    • Kaempferols appear to inhibit breast cancer cell invasion by down-regulating matrix metalloproteins-9 (MMP9) expression and activity (Al-Gubory, 2017). MMPs, such as MMP9, may be involved in the development of several human malignancies (Li, 2017).
    • Another type of flavonoids, anthocyanins, are found in red endives and may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease through inhibition of platelet aggregation (Ramya, 2019)

Endive leaf also contains sesquiterpene lactones, the most abundant of which are lactucin, 8-deoxylactucin, lactucopicrin and the respective 11(S), 13-dihydroderivatives 12. Lactucopicrin has been used as an antimalarial, sedative and analgesic in humans (Testone, 2019) and recently as a protector against neurodegenerative diseases (Venkatesan, 2017).

RAW

The following values are approximate and depend on variety, season, ripeness, cultivation conditions, etc. 

Raw endive is low in energy* as it provides an average of 20.20 calories (kcal) per 100 g, i.e. 84.80 kJ. One endive weighs on average 150 g, which represents an energy intake of about 30 kcal.

COMPOSITION TABLES

For each nutrient, the tables provide information on the content, the minimum and maximum values as well as the percentage of the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) per 100 g net of raw endive.

* Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.

MACRONUTRIENTS

Constituant (g) Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Water - - -
Fibers - - -
Carbohydrates - - -
Lipids - - -
Protein - - -
Constituant (g) Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Water - - -
Fibers - - -
Carbohydrates - - -
Lipids - - -
Protein - - -

Zoom on carbohydrates
  • The carbohydrate content of raw endive (2.83 g per 100 g) is lower than the average amount found in raw vegetables (4.45 g per 100 g)
  • They are mainly in the form of glucose (1.50 g per 100 g) and fructose (0.90 g per 100 g).
  • Raw endive is low in sugar* (2.40 g per 100 g) as it contains no more than 5 g per 100 g.
Zoom on fibres
  • The amount of fibre in raw endive (1.10 g per 100 g) is lower than the average quantity in raw vegetables (2.43 g per 100 g).
Zoom on proteins
  • The protein content of raw endive (1.19 g per 100 g) is lower than the average amount found in raw vegetables (1.87 g per 100 g).
Zoom on lipids
  • Raw endive is fat-free* as it contains less than 0.5 g per 100 g.

* Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.

MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS

Constituant Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Calcium (mg) - - -
Copper (mg) - - -
Iron (mg) - - -
Iode (µg) - - -
Magnésium (mg) - - -
Manganese (mg) - - -
Phosphorus (mg) - - -
Potassium (mg) - - -
Sodium (mg) - - -
Zinc (mg) - - -
Constituant Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Calcium (mg) - - -
Copper (mg) - - -
Iron (mg) - - -
Iode (µg) - - -
Magnésium (mg) - - -
Manganese (mg) - - -
Phosphorus (mg) - - -
Potassium (mg) - - -
Sodium (mg) - - -
Zinc (mg) - - -

Zoom on minerals and trace elements
  • Raw endive contains few minerals and trace elements. The best represented is potassium with a content equivalent to 7.50% of DRVs, i.e. 150 mg per 100 g.
  • The other minerals and trace elements are present in quantities representing less than 6% of DRVs.

MICRONUTRIENTS

Constituant Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B2 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B5 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B6 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B9 (µg) - - -
Vitamin C (mg) - - -
Vitamin E (mg) - - -
Constituant Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B2 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B5 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B6 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B9 (µg) - - -
Vitamin C (mg) - - -
Vitamin E (mg) - - -

Zoom on vitamins
  • Raw endive contains a significant amount of vitamin B9, as it provides the equivalent of 12.80% of DRVs, i.e. 25.60 µg per 100 g.
  • The other vitamins represent less than 7% of DRVs.
Calculation performed: Beta Carotene / 6 + retinol

BAKED

The following values are approximate and depend on variety, season, ripeness, cultivation conditions, etc. Baked endive is low in energy* as it provides an average of 23.50 calories (kcal) per 100 g, i.e. 99.50 kJ. One endive weighs on average 150 g, which represents an energy intake of about 35 kcal.

COMPOSITION TABLES

For each nutrient, the tables provide information on the content, the minimum and maximum values and the percentage of the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) per 100 g net of roasted/baked endive.

* Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.

MACRONUTRIENTS

Constituant (g) Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Water - - -
Fibers - - -
Carbohydrates - - -
Lipids - - -
Protein - - -
Constituant (g) Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Water - - -
Fibers - - -
Carbohydrates - - -
Lipids - - -
Protein - - -

Zoom on carbohydrates
  • The carbohydrate content of baked endive (4.38 g per 100 g) is slightly lower than the average content found in cooked vegetables (4.85 g per 100 g).
  • They are mainly in the form of glucose (2.20 g per 100 g) and fructose (1 g per 100 g).
  • Baked endive is low in sugar* (3.20 g per 100 g) as it contains no more than 5 g per 100 g.
Zoom on proteins
  • Its protein content (1.13 g per 100 g) is lower than the average amount found in cooked vegetables (2 g per 100 g).
Zoom on lipids
  • Baked endive is fat-free* as it contains less than 0.5 g per 100 g.

* Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. 

MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS

Constituant Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Calcium (mg) - - -
Copper (mg) - - -
Iron (mg) - - -
Iode (µg) - - -
Magnésium (mg) - - -
Manganese (mg) - - -
Phosphorus (mg) - - -
Potassium (mg) - - -
Sodium (mg) - - -
Zinc (mg) - - -
Constituant Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Calcium (mg) - - -
Copper (mg) - - -
Iron (mg) - - -
Iode (µg) - - -
Magnésium (mg) - - -
Manganese (mg) - - -
Phosphorus (mg) - - -
Potassium (mg) - - -
Sodium (mg) - - -
Zinc (mg) - - -

Zoom on minerals and trace elements
  • The mineral best represented in baked endive is potassium as its content is equivalent to 9% of DRVs, i.e. 180 mg per 100 g.
  • The other minerals and trace elements are present in quantities representing less than 8% of DRVs.

MICRONUTRIENTS

Constituant Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B2 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B5 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B6 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B9 (µg) - - -
Vitamin C (mg) - - -
Vitamin E (mg) - - -
Constituant Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B2 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B5 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B6 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B9 (µg) - - -
Vitamin C (mg) - - -
Vitamin E (mg) - - -

Zoom on vitamins
  • The content of each of the vitamins represents less than 3% of DRVs.

* Calculation made: Beta Carotene / 6 + retinol

Nutrition and health claims

According to the definitions of nutrition claims as set out in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims, and in view of the composition of raw endive, the following claim may be used:

NUTRITION CLAIMS OF RAW ENDIVE

  • Low in energy (100 g of raw endive provide less than 40 kcal)
  • Fat-free (100 g of raw endive contain less than 0.5 g of fat)

Low in sugar (100 g of raw endive contain less than 5 g of sugars)

Nutrition and health claims

According to the definitions of nutrition claims as set out in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims, and in view of the composition of baked endive, the following claim may be used:

NUTRITION CLAIMS OF BAKED ENDIVE

  • Low in energy (100 g of baked endive provide less than 40 kcal)
  • Fat-free (100 g of baked endive contain less than 0.5 g of fat)
  • Low in sugar (100 g of baked endive contain less than 5 g of sugars)
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual 2020. Consultée le 21/08/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Al-Gubory KH, Laher I (2017). Nutritional Antioxidant Therapies: Treatments and Perspective. Springer, 553 p.
  • Bernardes EC, Benko-Iseppon AM, Vasconcelos S, Carvalho R, Brasileiro-Vidal AC. Intra- and interspecific chromosome polymorphisms in cultivated Cichorium L. species (Asteraceae). Genet Mol Biol. 2013 Sep;36(3):357-63.
  • D’Antuono LF, Feriolo F, Manco MA. The impact of sesquiterpene lactones and phenolics on sensory attributes: An investigation of a curly endive and escarole germplasm collection. Food Chemistry. 2016;199:38-245.
  • Carazzone C, Mascherpa D, Gazzani G and Papetti A, Identification of phenolic constituents in red chicory salads (Cichorium intybus) by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chem. 2013; 138:1062–71.
  • DuPont MS, Mondin Z, Williamson G, Price KR. Effect of variety, processing, and storage on the flavonoid glycoside content and composition of lettuce and endive. J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Sep;48(9):3957-64.
  • Khalil HE, Kamel MS. Phytochemical and biological studies of Cichorium endivia L. leaves. J Pharm Sci Res. 2015; 7:509–13.
  • Li H, Qiu Z, Li F, Wang C. The relationship between MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression levels with the action and prognosis of breast cancer. Letters of Oncology. 2017;14(5):5865-70.
  • Ramya V, Patel P. Health benefits of vegetables. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 2019;7(2):82-7.
  • Rana MK, Duhan DS (2017). Vegetable Crop Science. Boca Raton : Rana MK, 472 p.
  • Règlement (CE) N° 1924/2006 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 2006 concernant les allégations nutritionnelles et de santé portant sur les denrées alimentaires.
  • Règlement (UE) N°432/2012 de la Commission du 16 mai 2012 établissant une liste des allégations de santé autorisées portant sur les denrées alimentaires, autres que celles faisant référence à la réduction du risque de maladie ainsi qu’au développement et à la santé infantiles.
  • Règlement (UE) n°1169/2011 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 octobre 2011 concernant l’information des consommateurs sur les denrées alimentaires, modifiant les règlements (CE) n°1924/2006 et (CE) n°1925/2006 du Parlement européen et de Conseil et abrogeant la directive 87/250/CEE de la Commission, la directive 90/496/CEE du Conseil, la directive 1999/10/CE de la Commission, la directive 200/13/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, les directives 2002/67/CE et 2008/5/CE de la Commission et le règlement (CE) n°608/2004 de la Commission.
  • Sinkovič L, Demšar L, Žnidarčič D, Vidrih R, Hribar J, Treutter D. Phenolic profiles in leaves of chicory cultivars (Cichorium intybus L.) as influenced by organic and mineral fertilizers. Food Chem. 2015; 166:507-13.
  • Testone G, Mele G, di Giacomo E. Transcriptome driven characterization of curly- and smooth-leafed endives reveals molecular differences in the sesquiterpenoid pathway. Hortic Res. 2019;6(1).
  • Venkatesan R, Shim WS, Yeo EJ, Kim SY. Lactucopicrin potentiates neuritogenesis and neurotrophic effects by regulating Ca2+/CaMKII/ATF1 signaling pathway. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2017;198:174-83.
Composition and analysis