A population-based case-control study of risk factors for neural tube defects in four high-prevalence areas of Shanxi province, China.
Sommaire de l'article
Shanxi province in Northern China has one of the highest reported prevalence rates of neural tube defects (NTD) in the world. To explore the risk factors for NTDs in Shanxi province, we carried out a population-based case-control study in four selected counties with prevalence rates >10 per 1000 births during 2003. Using a multi-logistic regression model analysis (alpha = 0.10), 158 NTD cases were compared with 226 control mothers. Maternal factors significantly associated with increased risk for an NTD were a primary school education or lower (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 4.97); a history of a previous birth defect-affected pregnancy (adjusted OR 5.27, 95% CI 0.98, 28.37); history of a fever or 'cold' (adjusted OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.68, 6.72); use of analgesic and antipyretic drugs (adjusted OR 4.89, 95% CI 0.92, 25.97); daily passive exposure to cigarette smoke (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% CI 0.94, 2.73); poor ventilation during heating (adjusted OR 3.91, 95% CI 0.75, 20.81); and consumption of >or= six meals per week containing pickled vegetables (adjusted OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.11, 13.47) during pregnancy. Factors which appeared to be protective were meat consumption one to three times per week (adjusted OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.37, 1.06), or >or= four times per week (adjusted OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11, 0.77); and legume consumption >or= six times per week (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.17, 0.89). Differences in risk were found between the two most common phenotypes, anencephaly and spina bifida. Most of the environmental factors had stronger positive and negative associations with risk for anencephaly rather than spina bifida, whereas history of a previous birth defect-associated pregnancy, as well as legume consumption, were more strongly associated with the risk for spina bifida than for anencephaly. The findings suggest that aetiological heterogeneity may exist between anencephaly and spina bifida.