Adipocytokins, obesity and development of type 2 diabetes
Sommaire de l'article
Normal metabolic balance is maintained by a complex homeostatic system involving multiple tissues and organs. Acquired or inherited defects associated to environmental factors in any part of this system can lead to metabolic disorders such as the syndrome Xwhich is presently a frequent syndrome in industrialized countries. It is characterized by a cluster of risk factors of atherosclerosis including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coagulation abnormalities. Its pathophysiology is likely to involve insulin resistance at the level of both skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue and altered fluxes of metabolic substrates between these tissues that in turn impair liver metabolism. Therapeutic intervention favours at present diet and exercise prescriptions. In addition, if necessary, specific treatment of the metabolic disorders is required. In the treatment of insulin resistance, new promising drugs are likely to be used in the next future. In this regard, adipose tissue, once thought to function primarily as a passive depot for the storage of excess lipid, is now understood to play a much more active role in metabolic regulation, secreting a variety of metabolic hormones and actively functioning to prevent deleterious lipid accumulation in other tissues and to modulate the insulin resistance. Here, we review new advances in our understanding of mechanisms leading to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes from the perspective of the role and interactions of recently identified adipocyte-specific chemical messengers, the adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6, and resistin.