Allergic sensitization and diet: ecological analysis in selected European cities
Sommaire de l'article
It has been postulated that the prevalence of atopic diseases and their increase over time are associated with regional differences in diet and trends. The results of an ecological correlation study comparing the mean daily intake of selected dietary constituents and the prevalence of allergic sensitization in adults in Europe is presented.Prevalence data from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) were used. For eight out of 37 ECRHS centres (including 3,872 subjects), comparable dietary data could be obtained. The effect for each dietary constituent was modelled using logistic regression analyses with a term for over dispersion.Inverse associations between the prevalence of allergic sensitization and the energy adjusted intake of fruit mere found (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, p = 0.034). Furthermore OR for energy adjusted intake of vitamin A (OR = 0.73, p = 0.057), vitamin C (OR = 0.83, p = 0.338) and riboflavin (OR = 0.72, p = 0.077) were consistently <1, but confidence intervals were wider. Daily intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (energy adjusted) was positively associated with sensitization prevalence (OR = 1.59, p = 0.035).These results support the hypothesis that a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids might promote the development of allergic sensitization.Despite tremendous advances in treatment, persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection commonly experience a variety of nutritional problems, such as weight loss, fat redistribution, and obesity. We discuss basic dietary and metabolic problems as they pertain to persons with HIV infection and provide practical suggestions for their management. In all persons, changes in weight are caused by disruptions of energy balance, which can be disturbed by alterations in energy intake (effective ingestion of calories), energy expenditure (use of calories), or both. Factors that contribute to the disturbance of energy balance are discussed in the context of HIV infection. Management of weight loss and weight gain may then be directed at the affected components of energy balance. This information is intended to raise health care providers' attention to nutrition in their patients, including monitoring of weight, dietary issues, and relevant symptoms, and to encourage liaisons with experienced dietitians and exercise trainers.