Alterations in Diets of Patients with Non-celiac Gluten Sensitivity Compared to Healthy Individuals.
Sommaire de l'article
BACKGROUND & AIMS
There is evidence that food components beyond gluten cause symptoms in patients with gluten sensitivity without celiac disease (non-celiac gluten sensitivity, NCGS). We investigated the diets and nutritional characteristics of patients with NCGS.
We performed a prospective observational study of 29 patients with NCGS seen at the outpatient clinic for Celiac Disease and other food intolerances of the University of Salerno in Italy from September 2015 through April 2016. Our study also included 37 controls. An experienced dietitian administered a validated food frequency questionnaire (from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) to collect information on amounts of common foods consumed. Patients and controls also completed the Eating Attitudes Test for diet-related disorders. Patients with NCGS completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2-I questionnaire. Differences in frequencies between patients and controls were calculated using χ2 test, while differences between continuous variables were calculated using t-test. All tests were two-tailed with significance level set at p < 0.05.
Comparing the mean value of food daily eaten, we found that patients with NCGS ate smaller amounts of bread, rice, pasta, and cheese than controls. The patients ingested lower mean amounts of carbohydrates (p <0.001), proteins (p 0.04), fiber (p 0.005), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p 0.01). More patients with NCGS than controls reported avoiding fruit, vegetables, milk, and dairy products, as well as snacks and mixed spices that are traditionally considered unsafe for people with gastrointestinal symptoms. Seven patients and 3 controls with scores ≥ 20 on the Eating Attitudes Test were invited for a psychological consultation; it did not confirm the presence of altered eating behaviours. Patients with NCGS had scores greater than 65 from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, indicating a high level of concern for their health.
In an observational study, we found that patients with NCGS eat different foods than healthy individuals; patients consume lower levels of proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Their diets should be routinely analyzed and possibly corrected to avoid nutritional deficiencies.