Associations between physical activity patterns and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls aged 13-21 years: a cross-sectional study (GEBaHealth Project).
Sommaire de l'article
Similar to other countries, trends of decreasing levels of physical activity (PA) and an increasing prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns are observed among girls in Poland. Better understanding of potentially inter-related behaviours within this population can help to design tailored interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between PA patterns and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls.
Girls aged 13-21 years (n = 1107) were randomly selected for the study. PA was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire – Long (IPAQ-L). Dietary data were collected with food frequency questionnaires. PA patterns and dietary patterns were drawn separately by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Logistic regression was used to find the associations between PA patterns and dietary patterns.
Four major PA patterns ('School/work activity', 'Active recreation', 'Yard activity' and 'Walking and domestic activity') and four dietary patterns ('Traditional Polish', 'Fruit & vegetables', 'Fast food & sweets' and 'Dairy & fats') were identified. Level of PA was the highest in the upper tertile of 'School/work activity' pattern (mean 1372.2 MET-minutes/week, 95 % Confidence Intervals [CI]: 1285.9-1458.5). Girls in upper tertiles of 'Yard activity', 'Active recreation' and 'School/work activity' patterns had significantly higher chances of being in the upper tertile of the 'Fruit and vegetables' dietary pattern (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95 % CI: 1.50-3.14, p < 0.0001; OR 2.02, 95 % CI: 1.41-2.91; p < 0.001 and OR 1.76, 95 % CI: 1.24-2.51, p < 0.01 respectively; all adjusted for confounders) in comparison to bottom tertiles. Weak, but significant inverse associations were found between upper tertiles of 'Active recreation' and 'Yard activity' patterns and unhealthy dietary patterns.
We found associations between PA patterns and dietary patterns in the population of Polish girls. Girls with the highest adherence to the 'School/work activity' pattern had the highest levels of PA and presented pro-healthy dietary behaviours. School should be recognised as potentially efficient and important setting to maximise girls' PA potential. The after-school time is the area that should also be targeted to increase daily PA or to at least sustain the level of PA after completing education.