Biochemical effects of dietary intakes of different broccoli samples. I. Differential modulation of cytochrome P-450 activities in rat liver, kidney, and colon.
Sommaire de l'article
Modulation of xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzyme activities, due to dietary intakes of cruciferous vegetables, has been described in animals and humans, and the induction of CYP1A enzymes is suggested mainly to be related to the content of indolyl glucosinolates in these vegetables. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects on specific CYP activities of various broccoli samples containing different levels of glucosinolates. Groups of rats were fed 1 of 8 broccoli samples from 2 cultivars; grown at different conditions. Thirteen different glucosinolates were quantified. The content of the 4 major glucosinolate, glucoraphanin (GRAP), glucoiberin, glucobrassicin (GB), and neoglucobrassicin (NeoGB) varied 5.6-, 2.7-, 3.2-, and 6.6-fold, respectively, among the broccoli samples. Dietary broccoli induced the CYP1A enzyme activities, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and 7-methoxyresorufin-O-demethylase (MROD), in rat liver, weakly in colon, but not in kidney. In concordance, the hepatic metabolism of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) to the proximate carcinogen N-OH-PhIP, a CYP1A-related activity, was enhanced by broccoli. The 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-depenthylase (PROD) activity, an assay for CYP2B1/2, was weakly induced in colon and kidney but not in liver by broccoli. The 2 beta -OH- and 6 beta -OH-testosterone hydroxylase activities were induced in liver microsomes, showing that broccoli increased CYP3A activity. The observed modulations of CYP activities depended clearly on the broccoli sample used, and significantly different responses were observed for different cultivars and growth conditions. These results indicate that modulation of CYP metabolism by broccoli may vary significantly in humans as well, as the content of glucosinolates and other active substances also varies between commercially available broccoli samples. The different effects depending on the vegetable sample eaten have to be considered in future experiments and dietary recommendations.