Certain aspects of molecular endocrinology that relate to the influence of dietary factors on the pathogenesis of prostate cancer
Sommaire de l'article
Isoflavonoids, flavonoids and lignans are natural oestrogenic compounds derived from soya, tea, fruits and vegetables and they have been proposed as chemopreventive agents in Asian men, in whom the incidence of prostate cancer is much lower than in men from the West. In addition to their weak oestrogenic activity, oestrogen antagonistic activity has also been described for some of these compounds. Furthermore, the lignan, enterolactone and the soya-derived isoflavone genistein are inhibitors of several steroid metabolising enzymes, such as aromatase, 5alpha-reductase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Genistein is a potent inhibitor of tyrosine kinases and along with flavonoids such as kaempferol and apigenin is also an inhibitor of topoisomerases I and II, enzymes which are crucial to cellular proliferation. Genistein is also an inhibitor of angiogenesis and many experimental in vivo and in vitro models, including those for prostate cancer, are growth inhibited by isoflavonoids, flavonoids and lignans. It is estimated that the traditionally eating Japanese male consumes approximately 20 mg of isoflavones per day, whereas for Western men, the daily consumption would be less than 1 mg/day. This is reflected in a high mean plasma concentration of genistein (180 ng/ml, n = 72) in Japanese men, compared to a level of <10 ng/ml for Western males.