Challenges in prostate cancer research: animal models for nutritional studies of chemoprevention and disease progression.
Sommaire de l'article
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that there will be over 232,000 new cases of prostate cancer in 2005. Evidence suggests that diet can act as a chemopreventive agent to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer as well as to reduce the mortality of the disease. Epidemiologic studies suggest that diets rich in specific vitamins, grains, fruits, and vegetables may be associated with lower cancer rates than high-fat diets, yet the molecular bases for these positive nutritional actions are largely unknown. The interactions of diet in combination with genetic determinants of disease progression are unclear because prostate cancer is also a disease resulting from abnormal gene expression. Hence, the biology of normal prostate development and the mechanisms underlying the initiation, progression, and metastatic spread of prostate cancer must be understood at the molecular level to develop effective nutritional prevention and intervention strategies to control and treat this malignant disease. However, progress toward understanding the biology of prostate cancer and the development of new therapies has been hampered by the lack of in vivo model systems that adequately capitulate the spectrum of benign, latent, aggressive, and metastatic forms of the human disease. In this review we discuss the diverse animal models of prostate cancer available and their applicability for nutritional studies of cancer prevention.