Changes in carotenoid intake from fruit and vegetables in the spanish population over the period 1964-2004.
Sommaire de l'article
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in carotenoid intake based on the variations in the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables in the Spanish population over the period 1964-2004. DESIGN: Consumption data of fresh fruit and vegetables from Family Budget Surveys carried out in 1964, 1980, 1990 and 2004. Consumption data (g per person per day) accounted for >90% of fruit and vegetable consumption at each time point. Quality controlled high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the carotenoid composition of Spanish fruit and vegetable was used. SUBJECTS: Randomly selected, private households throughout Spain (20,800 households in 1964, 30,311 households in 1980, 21,155 households in 1990 and 6000 households in 2004). Twelve vegetables and 16 fruits representing 89-96% of the total consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables were used. RESULTS: Individual consumption of fruit and vegetables has changed over this period, altering the total and individual intake of carotenoids. Total carotenoid intake increased from 2.5 mg per person per day in 1964 to 4.1 mg per person per day in 1990, with a decrease to 3.3 mg per person per day in 2004. These increments are due to an increase in lycopene, alpha- and beta-carotene, while a decrease in lutein and zeaxanthin is observed during the last decade. A continuous and consistent decrease in the relative contribution of lutein in the diet is observed over the period studied. CONCLUSION: Although the consumption of fruit and vegetables is still consistent with a Mediterranean-type pattern, modifications in the consumption of individual fruits and vegetables have provoked changes in total and specific carotenoid intake with potential relevance in human health.