Cultivar and growing region determine the antioxidant polyphenolic concentration and composition of apples grown in New Zealand.
Sommaire de l'article
Evidence suggests that increasing consumption of fruit and vegetables contributes to improved health and well-being by providing protection from diseases including various cancers and cardiovascular disease. Although there is uncertainty about which components generate this effect, an attractive hypothesis is that the antioxidants are at least partly responsible. We measured the polyphenolic concentrations in 10 different apple cultivars grown commercially in New Zealand, each sourced from three different geographic regions. Our results showed that the concentration of polyphenolics varied among the apple cultivars, with Pacific Queen containing 2.7 times the amount of polyphenolics found in Cox's Orange. Furthermore, there were significant differences in polyphenolic concentrations in fruit from different regions for some cultivars but not for others. We also measured the polyphenolic concentrations in apple skin and flesh and found that on average 46% of the polyphenolics in whole apples were in the skin. Essentially all of the flavonols (quercetin derivatives) were present in the skin. To maximize the intake of apple polyphenols, it is necessary to consume apples of cultivars with high polyphenolic concentrations such as Pacific Queen and include the skin. Our results also showed that there is potential for promoting apple fruit from specific geographical regions because they contained elevated concentrations of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds.