Developing effective policy and practice for health promotion in scotland.
Sommaire de l'article
Scotland has recently embarked on a new phase of policy and infrastructure development for improving population health and reducing health inequalities that broadly conforms to the Ottawa Charter and WHO’s strategic framework for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. The new phase is characterised by an integrated, cross-government approach to improving health with strengthened political and Scottish Executive leadership and investment since devolution. A comprehensive policy framework for improving young people’s health and reducing inequalities has been developed across education, health, environment and social justice. It builds on an earlier phase of relative stability and continuity in the health promotion infrastructure with policy focused on CVD and cancer prevention and tackling the behavioural risk factors (smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity) as well as sexual health and mental health and wellbeing. These national strategies are currently being implemented across Scotland. They combine promotion, prevention, treatment and protection goals and target both population-level and high-risk groups. Crosscutting government objectives and headline targets for addressing poverty, disadvantage and health inequalities now supplement the NHS health improvement targets on smoking, alcohol, physical activity, teenage pregnancy and child immunization. Within the health service, prevention efforts are largely concerned with primary care development (anticipatory care) and health system reform to maximize their impact on reducing health inequalities. Efforts to tackle the social determinants of health and reduce inequalities in health outcomes are beginning to be connected and mainstreamed across local government with Community Planning Partnerships as the main vehicle. National level mechanisms for integrated funding, planning and performance reporting to deliver shared priority outcomes have yet to be developed. The development of health improvement strategies has been founded upon a rich source of population health data to monitor changes and improvements, epidemiological studies and evaluation work. The key issues have been to find ways of intervening to accelerate the rate of improvement and to stem the growing health inequalities. A further challenge is to ensure that the lessons from reviews and evaluations of past programmes and strategies are not lost, but help to guide improvements in the complex delivery system and to inform future policy direction. Within the health service, prevention efforts are largely concerned with primary care development and health system reform. Efforts to reduce inequalities in health outcomes are beginning to be connected and mainstreamed across local government.
PMID: 18372874 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]