Diet composition of pregnant finnish women: changes over time and across seasons.
Sommaire de l'article
OBJECTIVE: To describe the diet of a population of pregnant Finnish women over a period of 7 years, with special attention paid to seasonal fluctuations in food consumption and nutrient intake. DESIGN: A validated 181-item FFQ was applied retrospectively, after delivery, to assess the maternal diet during the 8th month of pregnancy. SETTING: Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study Cohort. SUBJECTS: The cohort comprised a total of 4880 women who had newly delivered during the years 1997-2004, with the offspring carrying increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Over the study period, the proportion of energy derived from fat decreased while the intake from protein and carbohydrate increased. The intake of vitamin D increased from food sources. Seasonal variation was observed in the mean daily consumption of vegetables, fruits and berries and cereals. Intake of dietary fibre, total fat, MUFA, vitamins A, D, E and C, folate and iron also showed seasonal fluctuation. CONCLUSIONS: These results show an overall positive trend in the diet of pregnant Finnish women through the study years. However, there is still room for improvement, particularly in the types of dietary fats. Although food fortification with vitamin D since 2003 was reflected in the increased intake of vitamin D from foods, the mean intake levels still fell below the recommendations. Seasonal changes in food consumption were observed and related to corresponding fluctuations in nutrient intakes. The mean folate intake fell below the recommendation throughout the year.