Diet Quality Is Associated with Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Individuals at Cardiometabolic Risk.
Sommaire de l'article
We investigated whether diet quality was associated with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and television viewing and the associations of these variables with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and novel biomarkers in individuals at cardiometabolic risk.
A total of 193 prediabetic adults (63.7% women, mean age 54.1 years), screened for a diabetes prevention program in Brazil, participated in this cross-sectional study. Clinical data and blood samples were collected for several determinations. Twenty-four-hour recalls were used to calculate the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to Brazilian dietary habits and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess physical activity level. Analysis of covariance with adjustments for age and body mass index (BMI) was employed to test associations across categories of LTPA and television viewing.
Stratifying according to LTPA categories, the most active subset (≥150 minutes/week) showed better HEI scores after adjustments (64.6 ± 11.0, 65.1 ± 10.3, and 68.6 ± 10.8, p = 0.02) and significant higher values of dark green and orange vegetables but not of whole grains (p = 0.06). Active individuals had lower BMI, waist circumference, inflammatory markers, and better insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05). Individuals at the highest category of television viewing had higher age-adjusted BMI (32.0 ± 6.2, 30.7 ± 6.0, and 28.8 ± 4.7 hours/week; p = 0.01) than the others. Time watching television was inversely associated with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and C-reactive protein (CRP; p < 0.01) after adjustments but not with lipids and HEI score. Comparisons of individuals with healthy habits (better diet and higher physical activity [PA]), with those with unhealthy habits revealing better anthropometric and cardiometabolic profiles in the former group.
Diet quality assessed by the HEI adapted for Brazilian eating habits attained significance in differentiating more active from inactive at-risk individuals during leisure time. Time watching television, as a surrogate of sedentary behavior, is not useful to detect unhealthy diet quality. LTPA is indicative of better cardiometabolic profile reflected by lipid and inflammatory markers and index of insulin resistance.