Dietary intake and urinary metals among pregnant women in the Pacific Northwest.
Sommaire de l'article
Pregnancy is a period when the mother and her offspring are susceptible to the toxic effects of metals. We investigated associations of intake of frequently consumed foods with urinary metals concentrations among pregnant women in the Pacific Northwest. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd), arsenic (U-As) and molybdenum (U-Mo) concentrations from spot urine samples in early pregnancy (15 weeks of gestation, on average) among 558 women from Seattle and Tacoma, Washington. We assessed periconceptional dietary intake using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We also determined early pregnancy zinc concentrations in serum. Statistical analyses involved multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for smoking status, age, race/ethnicity, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and gravidity. The geometric mean and range in μg/g creatinine for U-Cd, U-As and U-Mo were 0.29 (0.1-8.2), 18.95 (3-550), and 72.1 (15-467), respectively. U-Cd was positively associated with dietary zinc intake (P-value = 0.004) and serum zinc (P-value<0.001) while it was negatively associated with coffee intake (P-value = 0.03). U-As was positively associated with dietary fish [(Lean fish, fatty fish, shellfish and non-fried fish) (P-values<0.01)], selenium (P-value = 0.004), zinc (P-value = 0.017), vegetables (P-value = 0.004), and low-fat yogurt (P-value = 0.03). Women who reported higher intake of dietary magnesium (Mg)(P-value = 0.04), insoluble fiber (P-value = 0.03), and low-fat yogurt (P-value = 0.04) had higher U-Mo concentrations. Our study suggests that vegetables, fish, fiber and yogurt might be significant dietary sources of metals. Future studies aimed at investigating the risk of exposure to metals from other various food sources among reproductive-age and pregnant women are needed.