Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome factors in a non-diabetic italian population.
Sommaire de l'article
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. The K-means clustering method was used to identify dietary patterns and logistic regression models were used to compare the adjusted prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome factors, stratifying by obesity status. SETTING: The 1992-3 Italian Bollate Eye Study, a population-based survey carried out in the town of Bollate (Milan), Italy. SUBJECTS: A total of 1052 non-diabetic Italian subjects, 527 men and 525 women, aged 42-74 years. RESULTS: Five dietary clusters were identified: common, animal products, starch, vegetal/fat and vitamin/fibre. After adjusting for potential confounders, the starch group showed the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (36%) followed by the animal products group (30%); the vitamin/fibre (20%) and vegetal/fat groups (19%) showed the lowest prevalence. The starch group had more dyslipidaemia (higher TAG and lower HDL cholesterol levels) and the animal products group had a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose. The vitamin/fibre group had the lowest prevalence of abdominal obesity. The beneficial effect of the vegetal/fat and vitamin/fibre dietary patterns seemed stronger among the obese. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the deleterious effect of a very-low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and also of high intakes of animal products. The consumption of a diet high in vegetal fats or rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a healthier metabolic profile. Reducing obesity is essential to prevent metabolic syndrome, but even among the obese dietary habits are important for preserving healthy lipid and glycaemic profiles.