Dietary practices among individuals with diabetes and hypertension are similar to those of healthy people: a population-based study.
Sommaire de l'article
Currently, diabetes mellitus (DM) and systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) are among the top five global risks for mortality. Among the modifiable factors, careful dietary practice is one of the essential elements for the control of NCDs, since these diseases are often the result of unhealthy lifestyles. Thus, this study aimed to assess the frequency of dietary practices among adult males and females with DM and/or SAH, and compare whether or not they are more frequent than in healthy adults, through a population-based study conducted in the city of Florianópolis, southern Brazil.
Cross-sectional population-based study, using as exposure self-reported DM and/or SAH status. Dietary practices were assessed using a semiquantitative food consumption questionnaire. The following were considered as adequate: regular intake (≥ 6 times/week) of fruit and vegetables, daily intake of fruit (≥ 3 times/day) and vegetables (≥ 2 times/day), intake lower than 2 times/week of meat fat, fried foods, and soda. Bivariate and adjusted analysis for sociodemographic variables were conducted using Poisson regression, stratified by gender.
Florianópolis, southern Brazil, 2009.
Representative sample of 20 to 59 year-old adults (n=1720).
A total of 16.6% participants were diagnosed with DM and/or SAH. The most frequently consumed unhealthy foods were fried food (51.0%, 95% CI: 48.8-53.5) and soda (57.9% 95%CI: 55.5-60.2). Of healthy foods, fruit was the less consumed on a daily basis (11.1% 95%CI 9.6-12.5). In general, women showed better dietary practices than men. In adjusted analysis none of dietary practices was more frequent among diabetic and/or hypertensive adults compared with healthy individuals, regardless of gender. No differences were found between healthy and unhealthy adults, when the number of dietary practices was assessed.
The frequency of dietary practices was low and did not differ between individuals with or without DM and/or SAH. It is fundamental to reinforce the need of healthy dietary practices as one of the essential elements for the control of chronic diseases and their complications.