Dietary predictors of urinary cadmium among pregnant women and children.
Sommaire de l'article
Cadmium is a toxic metal with modifiable exposure sources including diet. In pregnant women and children, unique dietary habits may contribute to DCd, and the relationship of diet to overall cadmium exposure can depend on specific factors during these transitional time periods.
This study aimed to identify and quantify food sources of DCd, describe the distribution of UCd, and determine the relationship of DCd and intake of specific foods with UCd, stratified by maternal smoking history, among pregnant women and children in a well-characterized Mexico City birth cohort.
Our sample included 192 pregnant women (third trimester) and 223 children (7-15years). DCd was calculated using FFQ and the U.S. TDS. We also measured UCd, maternal history of smoking, and additional covariates.
Pregnant women and children had geometric mean UCd concentrations of 0.19±0.78μg/L and 0.14±0.60μg/L, respectively. On average, estimated daily DCd intake was 9.3±3.5μg for women and 12.2±5.4μg for children. Adjusted linear regression models showed a positive association between DCd and UCd among women (p=0.03) and children (p=0.03) without a maternal history of smoking. Intake of fruit and vegetables among women and potato consumption among children were positively associated with UCd.
Pregnant women and their children are exposed to cadmium at dietary and urinary levels similar to those previously reported. Higher estimated DCd for children than for women could be attributed to the different FFQs or related to dietary pattern changes between age groups. DCd contributed to UCd in those without a maternal smoking history.