Dual trajectories of breakfast eating and fruit and vegetable intake over a 5-year follow-up period among economically disadvantaged children: Gender differences.
Sommaire de l'article
Breakfast eating (BE) seems to be cross-sectionally associated with fruit and vegetable intake (FVI). To date, gender differences in any codevelopment between BE and FVI, as well as their associated factors, have not been examined. The objectives of this study were (1) to identify dual trajectories of BE and FVI among economically disadvantaged boys and girls; and (2) to examine potential associated factors of identified dual trajectories by gender. Children from economically disadvantaged families were enrolled in this prospective multicity study of the Taiwan Database of Children and Youth in Poverty between July 6 and October 31, 2009 and followed up biannually (2009, 2011, and 2013). One thousand one children (50.2% girls, mean ages at each time point being 9.1, 11.2 and 13.1 years, respectively; 49.8% boys, 9.0, 11.0 and 13.0 years) who completed at least two of the three assessments were included. Dual trajectories of BE and FVI over a 5-year follow-up period were identified as the outcome variables of interest by using mainly group-based dual trajectory modeling. Nine potential associated factors were then examined using logistic regression models. Two distinct dual trajectories of BE and FVI were identified among the girls: longitudinally irregular (68.8%) and shift to irregular (31.2%). Two distinct dual trajectories of BE and FVI were identified among the boys: longitudinally irregular (90.2%) and consistently regular (9.8%). Age was the significantly associated factor for boys. The findings confirmed a heterogeneous codevelopment between BE and FVI that may indicate different underlying mechanisms. Most children with a longitudinally irregular BE pattern had a similar pattern of FVI. Future research should comprehensively explore the gender differences in the determinants of codevelopment between BE and FVI.