Effects of cruciferous vegetable consumption on urinary metabolites of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in singapore chinese.
Sommaire de l'article
Vegetable consumption, including cruciferous vegetables, is protective against lung cancer, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cruciferous vegetable consumption on the metabolism of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in smokers. The study was carried out in Singapore Chinese, whose mean daily intake of cruciferous vegetables is three times greater than that of people in the United States. Eighty-four smokers provided urine samples and were interviewed about dietary habits using a structured questionnaire, which included questions on consumption of nine commonly consumed cruciferous vegetables. Samples of these vegetables obtained in Singapore markets at three different times of year were analyzed for glucosinolates. Urine was analyzed for metabolites of NNK: 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAL-Glucs). Glucobrassicins, which release indole-3-carbinols on chewing, were the major glucosinolates in seven of the nine cruciferous vegetables, accounting for 70.0% to 93.2% of all glucosinolates in these vegetables. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.01) between increased consumption of glucobrassicins and decreased levels of NNAL in urine after adjustment for number of cigarettes smoked per day; similar trends were observed for NNAL-Glucs (P = 0.08) and NNAL plus NNAL-Glucs (P = 0.03). These results are consistent with those of previous studies, which demonstrate that indole-3-carbinol decreases levels of urinary NNAL probably by inducing hepatic metabolism of NNK. The results are discussed with respect to the known chemopreventive activity of indole-3-carbinol against lung tumorigenesis by NNK in mice and the effects of isothiocyanates, which are also formed on consumption of cruciferous vegetables, on NNK metabolism. The results of this study demonstrate the complexities in assessing effects of cruciferous vegetables on carcinogen metabolism.