Fasting plasma homocysteine levels in the insulin resistance syndrome – the Framingham offspring study
Sommaire de l'article
Insulin resistance, associated metabolic abnormalities, and elevated homocysteine levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined relationships between homocysteine levels and features of insulin resistance syndrome (IRS).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:
We measured clinical characteristics, plasma levels of fasting homocysteine, folate, B vitamins, creatinine, and fasting and 2-h insulin and glucose levels after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 2,214 subjects without CVD at the fifth examination (1991-1995) of the Framingham Offspring Study. After excluding 203 subjects with diabetes, the remaining 2,011 subjects were categorized as having none, one, two, or all three of the phenotypes of IRS: impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, and/or a central metabolic syndrome (two or more traits: obesity, dyslipidemia, or hyperinsulinemia). In addition, in 1,592 subjects attending the sixth examination (1995-1998), we measured the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR). Age-, sex-, creatinine-, vitamin-, and UACR-adjusted mean homocysteine levels or proportions with homocysteine >14 micromol/l in each phenotypic category and differences between categories were assessed with regression models.
The mean age of the subjects was 54 years (range 28-82); 55% were women, 12.3% had hyperinsulinemia, and 15.9% had two or more of the IRS phenotypes. Adjusted mean homocysteine levels were higher comparing those with hyperinsulinemia (9.8 µmol/l) and those without (9.4 µmol/l, P = 0.04) and were higher among subjects with two or more IRS phenotypes (9.9 µmol/l) compared with those with 1 or no phenotype (9.3 µmol/l, P = 0.003). Mean UACR levels were also higher among subjects with two or more IRS phenotypes (7.2 mg/g) compared with those with 1 or no phenotype (5.5 mg/g, P = 0.007).
Hyperhomocysteinemia and abnormal urinary albumin excretion are both associated with hyperinsulinemia and may partially account for increased risk of CVD associated with insulin resistance. Because hyperhomocysteinemia and microalbuminuria also reflect endothelial injury, these observations also support the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction is associated with expression of the IRS.