Food habits are related to glycemic control among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Sommaire de l'article
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the food habits of people with type 2 diabetes and to identify those habits related to glycemic control. DESIGN: The purposive sampling plan targeted people (40 to 65 years old) living in two urban communities in the Southeastern United States with type 2 diabetes for >1 year (60% women, 50% African Americans and low-income individuals). In-depth interviews were used to identify food habits. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) was measured to assess glycemic control. SUBJECTS: The final sample contained 89 participants (62% women, 48% African American, and 43% below 200% of the poverty level). STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Analysis of variance, principal component/factor analysis, cluster analysis, and multiple regression were used to relate food habits to glycemic control. RESULTS: A four-factor solution derived from 15 food habits explained 51.5% of the total variance in HbA(1c) values. High factor scores for three factors (Basic Eating Practices, Meal Planning, and Carbohydrate/Vegetable Strategies) and low factor scores for a fourth factor (Challenges of Dining Out) were related to lower HbA(1c) values. Based on similar patterns across the 15 food habits, participants were clustered into four groupings. The clusters differing on HbA(1c) (mean+/-standard deviation) were Healthful Eating Lifestyle (6.25+/-0.25), Disciplined Eating Approach (7.31+/-0.35), Limited Dietary Focus (8.28+/-0.33), and Poor Dietary Management (9.05+/-0.24). These groupings reflected different food habit factor profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the specific food habits of people with diabetes can offer a way to structure a meaningful dialog with clients about dietary self-management and guide the collaborative development of relevant dietary goals.