Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality-a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Auteur(s) :
Riboli E., Norat T., Aune D., Greenwood DC., Giovannucci E., Boffetta P., Fadnes LT., Keum N., Vatten LJ., Tonstad S.
Date :
Juin, 2017
Source(s) :
International journal of epidemiology. #46:3 p1029-1056
Adresse :
Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Sommaire de l'article

Questions remain about the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and mortality, and the effects of specific types of fruit and vegetables. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify these associations.

PubMed and Embase were searched up to 29 September 2016. Prospective studies of fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality were included. Summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated using a random effects model, and the mortality burden globally was estimated; 95 studies (142 publications) were included.

For fruits and vegetables combined, the summary RR per 200 g/day was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.94, I 2  = 0%, n  = 15] for coronary heart disease, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.92, I 2  = 73%, n  = 10) for stroke, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.95, I 2  = 31%, n  = 13) for cardiovascular disease, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99, I 2  = 49%, n  = 12) for total cancer and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.87-0.93, I 2  = 83%, n  = 15) for all-cause mortality. Similar associations were observed for fruits and vegetables separately. Reductions in risk were observed up to 800 g/day for all outcomes except cancer (600 g/day). Inverse associations were observed between the intake of apples and pears, citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and salads and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, and between the intake of green-yellow vegetables and cruciferous vegetables and total cancer risk. An estimated 5.6 and 7.8 million premature deaths worldwide in 2013 may be attributable to a fruit and vegetable intake below 500 and 800 g/day, respectively, if the observed associations are causal.

Fruit and vegetable intakes were associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and all-cause mortality. These results support public health recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and premature mortality.

Source : Pubmed