Fruit and vegetables consumption in relation to health and diet of medical students in crete, greece.
Sommaire de l'article
In Greece, prevalence of cardiovascular disease has been increasing during the last few decades. From a public health point of view, it is important to identify lifestyle practices associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. As part of the Clinical Nutrition course at the University of Crete School of Medicine, 507 medical students (292 men, 215 women) were examined during the period 1995-2001. Individual 24-hour dietary recalls were taken, lifestyle questionnaires were completed, and anthropometric and serum lipid measurements were performed. Fruits and vegetables were consumed by 90% of men (370 +/- 275 g/day) and 94% of women (354 +/- 283 g/day). Among non/ex-smokers who ate fruit and vegetables, 41% consumed > or = 400 g/day, compared to 31% of current smokers (p = 0.05). The risk for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) 130 mg/dL, and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (TC:HDL-C) > or = 5 decreased with increasing quartile of fruit and vegetables consumption (trend p < 0.01). Fruit and vegetable intake was favorably related to intake of dietary fiber, calcium, magnesium, potassium, folate, and vitamins C, E, A, B1 and B6, and inversely related to saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol. Prospective studies should be performed within the general young adult population to assess the long-term effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on chronic disease risk development.