Health risk factors associated with meat, fruit and vegetable consumption in cohort studies: A comprehensive meta-analysis.
Sommaire de l'article
The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to test the association between red, processed, and total meat, as well as fruit and vegetable consumption, and selected health risk factors, including body weight status, smoking habit, physical activity level, level of education, and alcohol drinking in cohort studies on non-communicable disease. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed to identify relevant articles published up to March 2017. In a two-stage approach, frequency-weighted linear regression coefficients were first calculated for each variable, and then combined across studies through meta-regression. Ninety-eight studies including 20 on red meat, 6 on processed meat, 12 on total meat, 37 on fruit and vegetable combined, 21 on fruit and 24 on vegetable consumption were analyzed. Intake of red meat was positively associated with BMI, percentage of overweight and obese, low physical activity, and current and ever smoking and inversely associated with percentage of non-smokers and high physically active individuals. Similar associations were found for red meat were found, although based on fewer data. Intake of fruits and vegetables was positively associated with prevalence of non-smokers, high education and high physical activity, and similar results were found when examining fruit and vegetable consumption separately. Stratification by geographical area revealed that some associations were stronger in US rather than European or Asian cohorts. In conclusions, the distribution of health risk factors associated with high meat and fruit/vegetable consumption may differ from those of low-consumers. Some of these differences may mediate, confound, or modify the relation between diet and non-communicable disease risk.