How to measure dietary intake and food habits in adolescence: the european perspective.
Sommaire de l'article
AIM: This paper deals with some methodological aspects of data collection in the context of measuring dietary intake in individuals in their adolescence life stage. METHOD: Experiences from three partners of the HELENA project in dietary intake measurement in children and adolescents are presented in this paper with emphasis on characteristics of under-reporting, long-term diet measurement and food patterns (Dortmund DONALD group), influences of survey duration on under-reporting (Ghent group) and meal habits (Spanish AVENA group). RESULTS: Under-reporters in the DONALD Study, particularly female adolescents, had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) than non-under-reporters; BMI could not be explained by different long-term dietary patterns during childhood and adolescence clustered according to fat consumption; consumers of fast food had higher BMI values than nonconsumers. In the Ghent experience, the decline in population mean energy intake as calculated over selected clusters of days is 184 kcal (6.5%) in boys and 116 (5.6%) in girls; the cluster of 1 recording day and the cluster of 3 recording days were not significantly different but they were both significantly different from the 7-day cluster; no significant interaction was observed between the effect of time and BMI. In the AVENA Study, the percentage of adolescents skipping breakfast was higher in females (8.6%) than in males (3.5%, P<0.001); higher BMI values were observed in those skipping breakfast than in those notskipping breakfast, but differences were statistically significant in males at 15 y and in females at 14 and 17 y; adolescents avoiding some food groups for breakfast had higher BMI values (carbohydrates, fruits and pastries in males and milk, fruits and pastries in females). CONCLUSION: Dietary and nutrient intake data in the HELENA project will be obtained by means of repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Data from HELENA might be a basis for developing complex approaches like Healthy Eating Indices.