Impact of polyphenols on extracellular vesicle levels and effects and their properties as tools for drug delivery for nutrition and health.
Sommaire de l'article
Polyphenols are found in plant-derived foods and beverages and display numerous protective effects against cancers, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), microparticles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies, originated by different cell types are emerging as a novel mean of cell-to-cell communication in physiology and pathology and represent a new way to convey fundamental information between cells. Polyphenols can act on signaling pathways that interfere with the biogenesis of EVs. Thus, they are able to control EV release from cells and their content and therefore their functional properties. Both EVs and polyphenols are therapeutic tools that can be used against several diseases. In this context, the combination of both tools can increase their therapeutic potential. Three types of strategies can be used: (i) plants are able to produce EVs that encapsulate natural components from vegetables, polyphenols for instance, (ii) mammalian cells can be treated with polyphenols and the subsequent EVs produced are enriched in these components, and (iii) EVs from mammalian cells can be uploaded with polyphenols. We review the novel aspects of the interplay between polyphenols and EVs that could trigger and improve the health benefits in cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases.