Increased intake of fruit and vegetables and a low-fat diet, with and without low-fat plant sterol-enriched spread consumption: effects on plasma lipoprotein and carotenoid metabolism.
Sommaire de l'article
BACKGROUND: Regular intake of plant sterol (phytosterol)-enriched foods enhances the cholesterol lowering effect of diets. One side effect associated with plant sterol consumption is a modest reduction in plasma carotenoid concentrations. This study investigated the effect of consuming a low-fat National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) Step 1 diet, including a low-fat plant sterol ester (PSE)-enriched spread on cholesterol metabolism to determine if specific dietary advice to increase daily fruit and vegetable intake could prevent reduced plasma carotenoid concentrations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomised, crossover double-blind trial, 48 hypercholesterolaemic men received 21 g day(-1) of a low-fat PSE-enriched spread or placebo for 3 weeks, interrupted by 3 weeks washout. Individuals also adhered to a NCEP Step 1 diet and repeated 3-day food diaries monitored adherence. Specific advice was provided to increase dietary fruit and vegetable intakes. Fasting blood samples were collected at pre- and post-intervention for lipoprotein and carotenoid analysis.
RESULTS: Plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were significantly (P <0.05) reduced, by 4.6 and 7.1%, respectively, after the PSE-enriched low-fat spread. Plasma apo B concentrations were significantly (P <0.0005) lower after the PSE spread. PSE consumption was also associated with significantly (P <0.05) lower total plasma beta-carotene concentrations, but this change was not significant after lipid standardisation. PSE consumption had no effect on retinol, alpha-carotene, gamma-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-crypyoxanthin or lycopene concentrations.
CONCLUSION: Dietary advice to increase daily fruit and vegetable consumption may be effective in preventing a reduction in plasma carotenoid concentrations previously associated with PSE consumption. Further, PSE incorporated in a low-fat spread and consumed as part of a NCEP Step 1 diet are effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol.