Individual diet modeling translates nutrient recommendations into realistic and individual-specific food choices.
Sommaire de l'article
BACKGROUND: Nutrient-based recommendations are defined for populations, but the dietary choices needed to fulfill them at the individual level deserve further exploration. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe the dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional recommendations for each individual of a population. DESIGN: An individual diet model was specifically developed for each adult participating in the French national INCA (Enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires) dietary survey (n = 1171). Starting from each individual weekly food intake (observed diets), an isocaloric modeled diet was designed by linear programming to simultaneously meet the French nutrient recommendations for 32 nutrients while deviating the least from the observed food intake. Modeled diets were paired with observed diets for statistical comparison. RESULTS: A new nutritionally adequate diet was obtained for each individual. In half the modeled diets, <5 of the foods usually consumed were replaced. The amount of foods selected in the modeled diets varied from individual to individual, and this variability followed that found in observed diets. Fruit, vegetables, grains, legumes, dried fruit, unsalted nuts, fresh dairy products, and fish were increased in modeled diets. Fatty fish and walnuts were added to each modeled diet. In contrast, red meats, deli meats, cheese, mixed dishes, and salted snacks were decreased. Sweets were also decreased but to a lesser extent. CONCLUSIONS: This new individual diet modeling approach offers the possibility of translating nutrient recommendations into realistic food choices for all individuals from a representative population. The results showed that nutrient needs can be fulfilled in many different ways, depending on initial individual food patterns.