Insulin resistance, low-fat diets, and low-carbohydrate diets: time to test new menus.
Sommaire de l'article
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insulin resistance increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and the risk of cardiovascular disease increases further once diabetes has developed. As insulin resistance is a precursor to diabetes, it is critically important to identify cost-effective means, such as dietary changes, by which to reduce insulin resistance. The purpose of this review is to evaluate recent findings concerning dietary composition and insulin resistance, with particular focus on low-fat diets compared with the currently popular low-carbohydrate diets. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings indicate little support for the value of low-carbohydrate diets as therapies for insulin resistance. In contrast, the limited data available suggest that the higher fat content of typical low-carbohydrate diets may exacerbate insulin resistance in the long term. Preliminary data indicate that proteins from different sources may have differing effects on insulin resistance. Preliminary data also suggest the potential value of whole grains, fruits and vegetables in therapeutic diets to reduce insulin resistance. SUMMARY: Current evidence supports the inclusion of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and lean sources of animal proteins including low-fat dairy products in dietary therapies for insulin resistance. Those who wish to follow a low-carbohydrate diet should be encouraged to follow a new menu low in fat, and with most of the protein derived from plant sources.