Lifestyle factors and symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux — a population-based study.
Sommaire de l'article
BACKGROUND: Although the symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are common in the general adult population, the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is still largely unknown. Lifestyle factors such as diet, body mass index, and smoking have been frequently suggested as possible risk factors. AIM: In the present study, we investigated the relationship between various lifestyle factors and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms. METHODS: A total of 7124 subjects were interviewed as part of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey, a representative sample of the general adult population. We examined a variety of possible risk factors, including age, gender, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, sports and different foods. To investigate the association between lifestyle and symptoms, we used a multiple logistic regression model, including various gastro-oesophageal reflux disease patient characteristics. RESULTS: We found an association among those with reflux symptoms who were overweight and obese (odds ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-2.2; odds ratio: 2.6, 95% confidence interval: 2.2-3.2), respectively. Further risk factors included smoking and the frequent consumption of spirits, sweets, or white bread. Physical activity and the consumption of fruits seemed to have some protective effect. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle factors — in particular overweight, obesity and smoking — were associated with increased reflux symptoms.