Local trends in diet in urban Colombia, 1990-1995 to 2008: Little evidence of a nutrition transition among low-income women.
Sommaire de l'article
To quantify changes in the diets of low-income women in Cali, Colombia between 1990-1995 and 2008, a period of increases in body size, and to situate these changes within national-level trends in food availability, as well as to compare these changes with those expected in countries undergoing a nutrition transition.
Individual dietary intake was assessed via 24-hour recalls in both 1990-1995 (n = 85) and 2008 (n = 88). Dietary data were analyzed for intake of energy, macronutrients, and specific food items. National-level trends in food availability were evaluated using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization.
Total energy and protein intake did not change over time, but in 2008 women consumed proportionally more fat (23.0 vs. 19.1% of calories; P = 0.002) and less carbohydrate (66.5 vs. 71.0% of calories; P < 0.001) than in 1990-1995. The increased fat consumption is attributable to vegetable oils. This increase in vegetable oil consumption, and a decrease in starchy vegetable consumption, fit with both national-level trends in food supply, and the expectations of a nutrition transition. On the other hand, the increased consumption of non-starchy vegetables, and the stability in consumption of added sugars and animal-source proteins was contrary to the expectations of a nutrition transition.
The changes in diet among low-income women in Cali, Colombia between 1990-1995 and 2008 partially match national-level trends in food supply and the theoretical expectations of a nutrition transition, but are nonetheless a localized phenomenon. They do not help explain concurrent changes in body size.