Low Adherence to Dietary Guidelines in Spain, Especially in the Overweight/Obese Population: The ANIBES Study.
Sommaire de l'article
The objective of this study was to analyze the dietary intake of the Spanish population according to ponderal status and body fat distribution.
Data were obtained from ANIBES (Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain), a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample (1013 men, 996 women) of the Spanish population (18-64 years). The final fieldwork was carried out from mid-September to November (three months) 2013. A 3-day dietary record provided information about food and beverage consumption. Height, weight, and waist circumference were assessed, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) calculated.
The Spanish population had a low consumption of fruits and vegetables, cereals, whole cereals, and dairy and high consumption of meat products. Individuals with overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) and abdominal adiposity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) showed lower compliance with dietary guidelines. In the male group, adjusting by age, inadequate consumption of cereals (<4 servings/day) and vegetables and fruit (<5 servings/day) was associated with higher risk of overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.704, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.187-2.447, p = 0.001, for cereals and OR = 3.816, 95% CI, 1.947-7.480, p = 0.001, for vegetables and fruits) and abdominal adiposity (OR = 2.081, 95% CI, 1.419-3.053, p = 0.000 and OR = 4.289, 95% CI, 2.108-8.726, p = 0.001, respectively).
Nutritional campaigns should be conducted to improve the dietary habits of the Spanish population in general, especially men, who have poorer ponderal status and abdominal adiposity, due to their lower adherence to dietary guidelines.