Markers of oxidative DNA damage in human interventions with fruit and berries.
Sommaire de l'article
Diets rich in fruit and vegetables are associated with a decreased risk of several cancers via numerous possible mechanisms. For example, phytochemicals may decrease oxidative DNA damage and enhance DNA repair. Markers of oxidative DNA damage in human dietary intervention trials used most frequently include oxidized nucleosides such as 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, which can be analyzed from isolated DNA or urine. Single-cell gel electrophoresis has been widely used to measure baseline or H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks or sites of modified bases sensitive to repair enzymes recognizing oxidized purines or pyrimidines. Recently, markers of DNA repair also have been used. Few controlled human dietary interventions have investigated the specific effects of fruit or berries. There are indications that kiwifruit can decrease H2O2 sensitivity of lymphocyte DNA ex vivo and enhance DNA repair. Carefully controlled studies with flavonoid-rich fruit or berry juices found only few significant differences; less rigorously controlled studies gave more optimistic results. Data on the effects of fruit and berries on DNA damage in humans are scarce and inconclusive; adequately controlled studies with validated markers are needed. Because levels of DNA damage are usually low in young healthy volunteers, groups with an enhanced risk of DNA damage should be studied.