Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome.
Sommaire de l'article
The metabolic syndrome (also referred to as syndrome X or the insulin resistance syndrome) has emerged as an important cluster of risk factors for atherosclerotic disease. Patients with the syndrome also are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Common features are central (abdominal) obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Weight reduction deserves first priority in individuals with abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Both weight reduction and maintenance of a lower weight are best achieved by a combination of reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity. Dietary patterns close to the Mediterranean diet and rich in fruit and vegetables, and high in monounsaturated fats are negatively associated with features of the metabolic syndrome. Some recent studies dealing specifically with the effect of interventions on the resolution of the metabolic syndrome have demonstrated a 25% net reduction in the prevalence of the syndrome following lifestyle changes mainly based on nutritional recommendations. Similar rates of resolution have been obtained with drugs, such as rosiglitazone and rimonabant. The favourable benefit/hazard ratio makes Mediterranean-style diets particularly promising to reduce the cardiovascular burden associated with the metabolic syndrome.