Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated to low risk of aggressive prostate cancer: MCC-Spain study.
Sommaire de l'article
To explore the association of the previously described Western, Prudent and Mediterranean dietary patterns with prostate cancer risk by tumor aggressiveness and extension.
MCC-Spain is a population-based multicase-control study, carried out in 7 Spanish provinces between September 2008 and December 2013. It collected anthropometric, epidemiologic and dietary information on 754 histologically confirmed incident cases of prostate cancer and 1277 controls aged 38 to 85 years. Three previously identified dietary patterns -Western, Prudent and Mediterranean- were reconstructed using MCC-Spain data. The association between each pattern and prostate cancer risk was assessed using logistic regression models with random province-specific intercepts. Risk according to tumor aggressiveness (Gleason score grade =6 vs >6) and extension (cT1-cT2a vs cT2b-cT4) was evaluated with multinomial regression models.
High adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern -rich in fruits and vegetables, but also in fish, legumes and olive oil- was specifically associated to lower risk of prostate cancer with Gleason score >6: RRRQuartile3(Q3)vsQuartile1(Q1)=0.66; 95%CI:0.46-0.96 and RRRQuartile4(Q4)vsQuartile1=0.68;95%CI:0.46-1.01;p-trend=0.023) or with higher clinical stage (cT2b-T4: RRRQuartile4vsQuartile1=0.49; 95%CI:0.25-0.96; p-trend=0.024). This association was not observed with Prudent pattern, which combines vegetables and fruits with low fat dairy products, whole grains and juices. Western pattern did not show any association with prostate cancer risk.
Nutritional recommendations for prostate cancer prevention should consider whole dietary patterns instead of individual foods. We found important differences between Mediterranean dietary pattern, which was associated to lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer, and Western and Prudent dietary patterns, that had no relationship with prostate cancer risk.