Metabolic syndrome in adolescents in the balearic islands, a mediterranean region.
Sommaire de l'article
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in adolescents in the Balearic Islands, in the western Mediterranean Sea. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands (2007-2008). A random sample (n=362, 143 boys and 219 girls) of the adolescent population (12-17years) was interviewed, anthropometrically measured, and provided a fasting blood sample. The MetS prevalence was determined by the ATP III criteria adapted for youths. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) was defined according to a score constructed considering the consumption of MD components: high monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)/saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio, moderate ethanol consumption, high legume, cereals and roots, fruit, vegetables, and fish consumption, and low meat and milk consumption. The overall MetS prevalence was 5.8% (boys 10.5%, girls 2.7%). MetS criteria were met by 10.0% of overweight, 45.5% of obese and in 1.8% of normal weight adolescents. Half of the adolescents (49.7%) had at least one MetS component. None of the adolescents had all five risk factors. High triglyceride level (90.5%), hypertension (85.7%), low HDL cholesterol level (78.9%) and central obesity (71.4%) were common among adolescents with MetS whereas hyperglycaemia (0.6%) was infrequent. Higher adherence to MD was associated with significantly lower odds ratio of having MetS, but half of the adolescents showed high adherence to MD. CONCLUSION: MetS prevalence was significant among adolescents in the Balearic Islands, especially among obese boys. A high adherence to MD in adolescents was associated with a low prevalence of the MetS criteria