New Insights into the Role of Nutrition in CVD Prevention.
Sommaire de l'article
Nutrition plays an increasingly significant role in lifestyle strategies for cardiovascular prevention. Foods and dietary patterns that encompass specific foods and beverages and their combinations, with synergies among their components, are the subject of much epidemiologic and clinical research in relation to health issues, including cardiovascular disease. Foods with the highest evidence for beneficial effects on cardiovascular outcomes (mainly fatal and nonfatal coronary artery disease and stroke) and intermediate risk markers (principally cholesterol and blood pressure) are fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts, whole grains, dairy products, fish, and alcohol consumed in moderation. Epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence on cardiovascular health issues is reviewed for these foods and for the dietary pattern with the highest probability of a causal link with cardiovascular protection, namely the Mediterranean diet. When pertinent, mechanisms of protection derived from specific nutrients in foods are also examined. The explosion of knowledge in cardioprotective foods and diets needs to be translated to the public, as dietary quality is still far from optimal in large segments of the population.