Non-communicable diseases, food and nutrition in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015: the burden and national response.
Sommaire de l'article
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
This review manuscript examines the burden and national response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), food and nutrition security in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN
We extracted data from peer-reviewed manuscripts and reports of nationally representative surveys and related policies in Vietnam.
In 2010, NCDs accounted for 318,000 deaths (72% of total deaths), 6.7 million years of life lost, and 14 million disability-adjusted life years in Vietnam. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus were major contributors to the NCD burden. Adults had an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity (2.3% in 1993 to 15% in 2015) and hypertension (15% in 2002 to 20% in 2015). Among 25-64 years old in 2015, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 4.1% and the elevated blood cholesterol was 32%. Vietnamese had a low physical activity level, a high consumption of salt, instant noodles and sweetened non-alcoholic beverages as well as low consumption of fruit and vegetables and seafood. The alcohol consumption and smoking prevalence were high in men. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke was high in men, women and youths at home, work, and public places. In Vietnam, policies for NCD prevention and control need to be combined with strengthened law enforcement and increased program coverage. There were increased food production and improved dietary intake (e.g., energy intake and protein-rich foods thanked to appropriate economic, agriculture, and nutrition strategies.
NCDs and their risk factors are emerging problems in Vietnam, which need both disease-specific and sensitive strategies in health and related sectors.