Nutrition transition and health status of cretan women: evidence from two generations.
Sommaire de l'article
OBJECTIVE: Research has suggested the abandonment of the traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) by youngsters for a more Westernized regime. The present study aimed (i) to delineate differences in the consumption of traditional Cretan dishes and key nutrients in the MD between two contiguous generations of women and (ii) define how these dietary changes contribute to the morbidity of the younger generation.
SETTING: The island of Crete, Greece.
SUBJECTS: Eighty pairs of mothers and daughters, all living in their own households, were recruited from Crete. Information regarding the consumption of traditional Cretan dishes and two previous-day recalls were collected. The health status of the participants was also recorded. Simple correspondence analysis (SCA) was used to assess associations between differences in the food intake of daughters compared with their mothers and the prevalence of disease.
RESULTS: The younger women showed increased intakes of rusks and meat dishes and decreased consumption of green vegetables, pulses and wine compared with their mothers. When nutrients were accounted for, only sugar consumption of the younger women surpassed the intake reported by their mothers. SCA associated hypercholesterolaemia in the daughters with increased cheese and meat intakes; allergies and respiratory problems were associated with lower cheese, fish and oil intakes; being overweight was associated with higher baked goods, oils, desserts, fish and alcohol intakes; and Fe-deficiency anaemia was associated with lower consumption of green vegetables.
CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that, although a trend towards a more Westernized diet was noted in the younger women, the differences between the two generations appear to be small. Therefore, in Crete, the MD is still the primary diet regime.