Nutritional and behavioral determinants of adolescent obesity: a case-control study in Sri Lanka.
Sommaire de l'article
BACKGROUND: Global prevalence of adolescent obesity is rising at an alarming rate leading to increase risk of adult obesity. Obesity in adolescence is postulated to have a significant impact on both physical and psychological health of an individual. The study aim was to identify nutritional and behavioral risk factors associated with obesity among adolescent Sri Lankan school girls.
METHODS: In this case-control study, age and ethnicity matched 100 cases (BMI-for-age above +2SD) and 100 controls (BMI-for-age between -2SD to +1 SD) adolescent girls between 14 to 18 years of age were recruited. Predicted risk factors of obesity were assessed through an interviewer administrated questionnaire. A three day diet diary and long version of international physical activity questionnaire were used to assess daily energy intake and energy expenditure from physical activity, respectively. The significant differences in mean values were evaluated using paired t-test. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk factors associated with obesity.
RESULTS: Obese girls had significantly higher BMI (31.3, 20.2 kgm-2 p < 0.0001), waist circumference (90.8, 68.2 cm p < 0.0001), energy intake (2235.4, 1921.7 kcal p < 0.0001) and lower energy expenditure from physical activity (894.6, 1844.3 MET (metabolic equivalent)-min/week p < 0.0001). High family income (Odds ratio [OR], 2.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-7.88), first born in family (2.73, 1.25-5.97), skipping breakfast (3.99, 1.81-8.80), consumption of fruits < 4 days per week (2.18, 1.02-4.67), screen viewing > 2 hours/ day (2.96, 1.33-6.61), energy intake (3.97, 3.19-16.36), significantly increased the risk of obesity, whereas increased physical activity (4.34, 1.33-14.14) decreased the risk. Irregular menstruation (4.34, 1.33-14.14) was noted among the obese.
CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic and behavior factors are major determinants of adolescent obesity in Sri Lanka. There is an urgent need to implement awareness as well as behavior modification programmes targeting adolescents, parents and schools to control childhood and adolescent obesity.