Nutritional and plasmatic antioxidant vitamins status of ultra endurance athletes.
Sommaire de l'article
OBJECTIVE: The « Marathon des Sables » (MDS) is a competition known to induce oxidative stress. Antioxidant vitamins prevent exercise-induced oxidative damages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate daily intake and plasma level of the main antioxidant vitamins (alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, beta-carotene and retinol) in 19 male athletes who participated in this competition. METHODS: Data collected before the beginning of the competition included daily dietary intake using a 7-day food record and plasma biochemical measurements (alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, beta-carotene and retinol). RESULTS: First, total energy intake was obviously lower than the energetic intake usually observed in well-trained endurance athletes. Second, antioxidant vitamins intake was also insufficient. Indeed, the intake was lower than the French Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for this population in 18 subjects for vitamin E and 6 subjects for vitamin C, beta-carotene and Retinol Equivalent. As a significant relationship was found between total energy intake and the intake of vitamin E (r = 0.73; p < 0.001) and vitamin C (r = 0.78; p < 0.001), the low total energy intake contributed partially to the insufficient antioxidant vitamins intake. The dietary questionnaire analysis also revealed a low intake of vegetable oils, fruits and vegetables. However, plasma concentrations of these antioxidant vitamins were similar to the literature data observed in athletes. CONCLUSION: This study evidenced obvious insufficient energy intake in ultra endurance athletes associated with a low antioxidant vitamin intake.