Obesity in young age is a risk factor for preeclampsia: a facility based case-control study, northwest Ethiopia.
Sommaire de l'article
Preeclampsia is one of the most commonly encountered hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. For many years, obesity has been suggested to play a role in preeclampsia. However, the hypotheses have been diverse and often revealed inconsistent results. This study has aimed to estimate the effect of obesity and dietary habits on preeclampsia in Bahir Dar City, north-western Ethiopia.
A facility-based unmatched case-control study was conducted on 453 (151 cases and 302 controls) pregnant women, attending antenatal care or skilled delivery at Bahir Dar City. Data were collected through face to face interviews and measurements of mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) at the time of the interviews. Data were cleaned and entered into IBM SPSS version 20 and later analyzed using STATA version 12. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the effect of independent variables on preeclampsia. Stratified analysis was conducted to check for presence of confounding and/or effect modification between covariates.
The odds of preeclampsia were higher among obese (MUAC ≥25 cm) women than their leaner counterparts (AOR = 3.33, 95 % CI: 1.87, 5.79). Obesity was also found to have a similar magnitude of risk for late onset preeclampsia (AOR = 3.63, 95 % CI: 1.89, 6.97). When stratified by age, the effect of obesity on overall and late onset preeclampsia was significant among young (age < 35 years) women (COR = 1.81, 95 % CI: 1.11, 2.99) and (COR = 2.09, 95 % CI: 1.16, 3.86), respectively. As the age groups became more homogenous through adjusted stratification, obesity showed a particularly significant effect in women age ≤24 and 25-29 years; (AOR = 2.31, 95 % CI: 1.06, 5.12) and (AOR = 3.66, 95 % CI: 1.37, 10.87) respectively. Similarly, the effect of obesity on late onset preeclampsia was evident among younger women age ≤24 and 25-29 years; (AOR = 3.16, 95 % CI: 1.21, 8.24) and (AOR = 1.98, 95 % CI: 1.16, 3.40) respectively. However, obesity has no significant effect on early onset of preeclampsia (AOR = 1.98, 95 % CI: 0.79, 4.94). On the other hand, compliance to folate supplementation during pregnancy and fruit consumption were associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia.
Obesity in young age was found to be a risk factor for preeclampsia while compliance to folate supplement and adequate fruit consumption were found to be protective against preeclampsia. Promoting healthy life style, including body weight control, consumption of fruits and vegetables, and folate supplementation should be promoted to reduce the risk of preeclampsia.