Outcome and process evaluation of a norwegian school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention: fruits and vegetables make the marks (fvmm).
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: Health Educ Res. 2005 Oct 11; [Epub ahead of print] Related Articles, Links
Bere E, Veierod MB, Bjelland M, Klepp KI.
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway.
This study reports the effect of the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks intervention, a school-based fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a home economics classroom component and parental involvement and encouraged participation in the Norwegian School Fruit Programme, all delivered during the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the intervention and 10 schools served as control schools. Participating pupils completed questionnaires at baseline (September 2001), at Follow-up 1 (May-June 2002) and at Follow-up 2 (May 2003). A total of 369 pupils (69%; mean age, 11.3 years at baseline) participated in all three surveys. No effect of the intervention was found for intake of fruit and vegetables eaten at school or all day, neither at Follow-up 1 nor at Follow-up 2. On analysing the effects on potential mediators, significant differences between intervention and control groups were found for Awareness of the five-a-day recommendations only. The intervention programme was rated as very good by the teachers, and the pupils reported that they enjoyed it. However, the intervention failed to change fruit and vegetable intake, probably because it did not succeed in changing the pupils’ preferences for or the accessibility of fruit and vegetables–the two strongest correlates of children’s fruit and vegetable intake.