Pattern of long-term fat intake and bmi during childhood and adolescence–results of the donald study.
Sommaire de l'article
OBJECTIVE: Adverse dietary habits have been discussed as being conducive to the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. No single dietary factor has been clearly identified so far. We analyzed long-term fat intake patterns during childhood and adolescence and their influence on body fatness. METHODS: Four clusters with different patterns of percent energy from fat were found in 228 individuals from the age of 2-18 y participating in the DONALD Study (Dortmund Nutritional Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study) with at least 10 yearly weighed dietary records between 1985 and 2002. Clusters were evaluated with regard to macronutrient and food group intakes and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: The mean energy density and the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate per subject differed significantly between clusters. All calculated macronutrients (per energy intake) with the exception of dietary fiber differed significantly as well as intakes of Meat/Fish/Eggs, Fats/Oils and Fruit/Vegetables. Although these differences in dietary characteristics persisted during the study period, no differences of BMI (calculated as standard deviation score) were found either at the first or last examination per subject. The mean BMI during the study period differed significantly, with the highest BMI in the low fat intake cluster. CONCLUSION: BMI could not be explained by different dietary patterns during childhood and adolescence in this long-term evaluation of dietary records. Underreporting especially in obese subjects, the problem of detecting minor overconsumption of energy intake that favors the development of obesity over long periods, and the small study sample may explain these conflicting results.