Persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and radioactivity in the urban soil of Priština City, Kosovo and Metohija.
Sommaire de l'article
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals content and radioactivity levels were measured in 27 soil samples collected from Priština, the capital of Kosovo and Metohija. The sixteen PAHs, twelve OCPs and six PCBs congeners were determined by gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. Although the use of PCBs and OCPs was prohibited decades ago residues of those compounds still existed in measurable concentrations in soils of Priština. PAHs were also present in analyzed samples but their mean concentration was significantly lower than mean concentrations of PAHs previously reported in urban areas in the world. The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by the EDTA extraction protocols, along with their extractable concentrations. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) were determined by gamma spectrometry method. The Shapiro-Wilk normality test found that activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were normally distributed. Radiological risk was estimated through the annual effective dose, gonadal dose equivalent, excess lifetime cancer risk, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indexes. Spearman correlation coefficient was used for analysis of correlations between physicochemical properties, heavy metal contents and radionuclide activity concentrations. Strong positive correlation between (226)Ra and (232)Th was found, as well as among pairs of As-Cd and Co-Mn. Very strong positive correlation (0.838) at the 0.01 significance level was noted for Pb-Zn pair. Strong correlations indicate common occurrence of these elements in the nature, as well as geogenic association.