Pesticide residues in grapes and wine in Italy
Sommaire de l'article
Two hundred and one pesticides comprising 84 fungicides, 88 insecticides and 29 herbicides are registered in Italy for use on grapes. Recently, the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for 16 fungicides and five insecticides were established for wine. However, literature data show that some MRLs for wine are not consistent with the corresponding values for grapes. In Italy, the Ministry of Health has the responsibility for checking pesticide contamination in fruit and vegetables in general distribution (i.e. grocery shops, food stores). From 1996 to 1999, out of 1532 grape samples analysed, levels of 1.0, 0.9, 1.8 and 1.9% in each year respectively were contaminated. As part of the National Residue Monitoring Programme, the Ministry of Agriculture carried out investigations of samples collected directly from the field (therefore of a known pesticide treatment history) in order to rnd the causes of the observed irregularities and to identify preventative measures. In 1996, 1998 and 1999, out of 481, 1195 and 1949 grape samples analysed, 7.9, 6.5 and 2.5% respectively were contaminated, while no residues were detected in 259 wine samples. The National Observatory on Pesticide Residues collects data from analyses performed by highly reliable, non-institutional laboratories on samples from farming cooperatives or individual farms, food companies, wholesale and retail markets. Of the 846 grapes samples and 190 wine samples collected in 1998 and 1999, a total of 6.1 and 2.1% respectively of grapes and 0% for all wine samples were found to contain residues.